Home Environment and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study of Elementary Level Students of Azad Jammu and Kashmir


  • Dr. Khatiba Akhter
  • Samra Malik Department of Education, University of Kotli, AJ&K




Home environment, Role of father, Role of mother, Role of child, Role of family, Academic achievement


This study was conducted to determine the relationship between home environment and academic achievement of students at elementary level. The current study was quantitative in nature and survey method were used for data collection.  The population of the study were consisted of twenty four hundred and nighty two (2492) students of all government elementary schools of Kotli AJ&K. The researcher selected 350 students as a sample in this study using simple random sampling technique. Standardized questionnaire developed by Smekh and leuin (1990) were used for the collection of data. The researcher personally visited the government schools of Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir for collection of data. The researcher applied frequency, percentage, mean and Pearson’s correlation for the analysis of data. It is concluded that parental communication is basic aspect of home environment and is essential in academic achievement of students. It is recommended that schools should actively promote and facilitate effective communication channels between parents, teachers and students to foster a collaborative approach to education


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad, N., Shahzad, S., Zahid, M., Rauf, M., Azmat, M., & Shah, A. (2021). Assessment of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement In The Subject Of Pakistan Study In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Webology (ISSN: 1735-188X), 18(5).

Al-Matalka, F. I. M. (2014). The influence of parental socioeconomic status on their involvement at home. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(5), 146-154.

Al-Naggar, R. A., Osman, M. T., Ismail, Z., Bobryshev, Y. V., Ali, M. S., & Menendez-Gonzalez, M. (2015). Relation between type of personality and academic performance among Malaysian health sciences students. International Archives of Medicine, 8.

Artino, A. R. (2012). Academic self-efficacy: from educational theory to instructional practice. Perspectives on medical education, 1, 76-85.

Ben-Arieh, A., Casas, F., Frønes, I., & Korbin, J. E. (2014). Multifaceted concept of child well-being. Handbook of child well-being, 1, 1-27.

Bicer, A., Capraro, M. M., & Capraro, R. (2013). The effects of parent’s SES and education level on students’ mathematics achievement: Examining the mediation effects of parental expectations and parental communication. The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 3(4), 89-97.

Bick, J., Lipschutz, R., Lind, T., Zajac, L., & Dozier, M. (2019). Associations between early home environment and trajectories of disruptive behavior among preschoolers reared in CPS-referred families. Developmental Child Welfare, 1(4), 297-311.

Bloomquist, M. L., August, G. J., Lee, S. S., Piehler, T. F., Jensen, M., & Hecht, D. B. (2013). Effects of a school-wide behavior management program implementation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(4), 202-213.

Cetin, S. K., & Taskin, P. (2016). Parent involvement in education in terms of their socio-economic status. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 16(66), 105-122.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Cook-Harvey, C. M. (2018). Educating the Whole Child: Improving School Climate to Support Student Success. Learning Policy Institute.

Desimone, L. M. (1999). Linking parent involvement with student achievement: Do race and income matter? Journal of Educational Research, 93(1), 11-30.

Donnelly, J. E., & Lambourne, K. (2011). Classroom-based physical activity, cognition, and academic achievement. Preventive medicine, 52, S36-S42.

Duchesne, S., Ratelle, C. F., & Feng, B. (2007). Attachment security to mothers and fathers and the developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescence: Which parent for which trajectory? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(7), 811-824.

Duh, M., Belak, J., & Milfelner, B. (2010). Core values, culture and ethical climate as constitutional elements of ethical behaviour: Exploring differences between family and non-family enterprises. Journal of business ethics, 97, 473-489.

Dzever, L. T. (2015). The Impact of Home Environment Factors on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Garki Area District, Abuja-Nigeria. Bulgarian Journal of Science & Education Policy, 9(1).

Efriza, R., Caska, C., & Makhdalena, M. (2020). Analysis of Factors Affecting Student Learning Achievement of Social Sciences Subjects in Muhammadiyah Middle School Rokan Hulu Regency. Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(3), 529-540.

Epstein, J. L. (2011). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools. Westview Press.

Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13(1), 1-22.

Fanti, K. A., & Henrich, C. C. (2010). Trajectories of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from age 2 to age 12: findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Developmental psychology, 46(5), 1159.

Galvin, K. M., Braithwaite, D. O., & Bylund, C. L. (2015). Family communication: Cohesion and change. Routledge.

Gentile, D. A., Nathanson, A. I., Rasmussen, E. E., Reimer, R. A., Walsh, D. A., & Eisenmann, J. C. (2017). Can watching TV hurt kids? Research explores how different forms of screen time affect children’s health and development. Child Development, 88(2), 356-361.

Harding, J. F., Morris, P. A., & Hughes, D. (2015). The relationship between maternal education and children's academic outcomes: A theoretical framework. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77(1), 60-76.

Hart, R. A. (2013). Children's participation: The theory and practice of involving young citizens in community development and environmental care. Routledge.

Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40(3), 237-269.

Kim, S. (2011). The effects of internet use on academic achievement and behavioral adjustment among South Korean adolescents: Mediating and moderating roles of parental factors. Syracuse University.

Kim, S., & Esquivel, G. B. (2011). Adolescent spirituality and resilience: Theory, research, and educational practices. Psychology in the Schools, 48(7), 755-765.

Kutsyuruba, B., Klinger, D. A., & Hussain, A. (2015). Relationships among school climate, school safety, and student achievement and well‐being: a review of the literature. Review of Education, 3(2), 103-135.

Mollborn, S., Rigles, B., & Pace, J. A. (2021). “Healthier than just healthy”: Families transmitting health as cultural capital. Social Problems, 68(3), 574-590.

Morin, P., Demers, K., Turcotte, S., & Mongeau, L. (2013). Association between perceived self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies among working parents with preschool children. Appetite, 65, 43-50.

Morin, P., Demers, K., Turcotte, S., & Mongeau, L. (2013). Association between perceived self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies among working parents with preschool children. Appetite, 65, 43-50.

Newman, J., Gozu, H., Guan, S., Lee, J. E., Li, X., & Sasaki, Y. (2015). Relationship between maternal parenting style and high school achievement and self–esteem in China, Turkey and USA. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 46(2), 265-288.

Nichols, T. M., Kotchick, B. A., McNamara Barry, C., & Haskins, D. G. (2010). Understanding the educational aspirations of African American adolescents: Child, family, and community factors. Journal of Black Psychology, 36(1), 25-48.

Nouri, A. (2015). The relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' behavior and academic achievement of high school students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 6(3), 574.

O'Malley, M., Voight, A., Renshaw, T. L., & Eklund, K. (2015). School climate, family structure, and academic achievement: a study of moderation effects. School Psychology Quarterly, 30(1), 142.

Runco, M. A., & Cayirdag, N. (2013). The development of children’s creativity. In Handbook of research on the education of young children (pp. 116-128). Routledge.

Ruthven, I., Buchanan, S., & Jardine, C. (2018). Relationships, environment, health and development: The information needs expressed online by young first‐time mothers. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 69(8), 985-995.

Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-Jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2011). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: The roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(1), 120-132.

Sharma, R. (2011). Effect of school and home environments on creativity of children. MIER Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices, 187-196.

Sui-Chu, E. H., & Willms, J. D. (1996). Effects of parental involvement on eighth-grade achievement. Sociology of Education, 69(2), 126-141.

Taylor, C. (2010). A practical guide to caring for children and teenagers with attachment difficulties. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 202-209.

Wood, R. G., Moore, Q., Clarkwest, A., & Killewald, A. (2014). The long‐term effects of building strong families: A program for unmarried parents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(2), 446-463. Yaffe, Y. (2023). Systematic review of the differences between mothers and fathers in parenting styles and practices. Current psychology, 42(19), 16011-16024.




How to Cite

Dr. Khatiba Akhter, & Malik, S. (2024). Home Environment and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study of Elementary Level Students of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Education, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.5281/ijete.v2i1.37