Causes of Unhygienic Conditions of Primary Schools in District Kotli AJ&K


  • Nauman Saeed Department of Education, International Islamic University Islamabad
  • Zoha Zoofishan Hashmi Department of Education, University of Kotli, AJ&K



Unhygienic conditions, Dirty Restrooms, Poor Waste Management, Poor Food Handling, Primary Schools


The purpose of the investigation was to confirm the Causes of unhygienic conditions of primary school in District Kotli AJ&K. The study was descriptive in nature and survey method was used to collect the data. The total population consisted of 312 primary school teachers of tehsil Kotli and Kohiratta. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from the population. The researcher selected (175) teachers as a sample from whole population. A self-developed questionnaire based on Five Point Likert Scale was used for the collection of data. The researcher personally collected the data after evaluating its validity and reliability. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data by using frequency and percentage. It is concluded that primary schools’ classroom is cleaned on a daily basis and students are aware of the importance of cleanliness. Classroom teacher may actively address hygiene condition. Moreover, proper sanitation is available in the classroom and classrooms are organized sufficiently for all students.


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How to Cite

Saeed, N., & Hashmi , Z. Z. . (2023). Causes of Unhygienic Conditions of Primary Schools in District Kotli AJ&K. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Education, 1(3), 30–41.